in User Centered Design

Gestalt Laws of Visual Perception

Gestalt school of psychology ( experimental psychology) states that
“Humans perceive objects as organized patterns rather than individual components.” Individual components have no meaning independent of the whole, but combine to reveal an indentifyable pattern.
The natural organisation of a pattern is also based on the individual perceptual history of the user. Pattern recognition becomes a function of the user rather then that of the stimulus. It also varies according to the user’s culture and in general, time.

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Proximity: Objects that are closer to one another tend to be grouped together.
The 3×3 dot matrix will be perceived by the human eye as a set ot 3 vertical / horizontal lines as given below.

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Similarity: Objects that are more similar to one another tend to be grouped together. The similarity can be in terms of any dimension: shape, size, colour, or luminance (or motion)

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Closure: Objects that form closed/almost closed units tend to be grouped together.

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Common Fate State: Objects that move in the same direction, tend to be grouped together.

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